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Landscape and Children's Playgrounds

Article Author: Composition Worker

Landscape Architecture Master Student, Süleyman Demirel University, Institute of Science, Department of Landscape Architecture, 32200, Isparta, TURKEY, 


In our cities, whose population is increasing day by day, natural agebut the child is seen as a reflection of the longingFlour fields have an important role in the development of children. SThe need for these areas, which are also the lungs in cities, is increasing day by day.   

This research, Isparta Current status and qualifications of children's playgrounds in the city centermade to determine thetruck.  

Workma, Isparta municipality adjacent area carried out within its borders. searchon the climbdefinition of children's playgrounds, workLevi classification and standardInformation has been given about thetruck. 

a previously maderashclimbings As a result, the city of children's playgroundsnot evenly distributed inmost quantity and reinforcement elementsfound to be insufficienttruck. Children's playgrounds in the city should be planned in a system, and necessary measures should be taken to make them sufficient in terms of quantity and quality.   


The play grounds in the cities, which represent a kind of yearning for nature, play an important role in the developmental process of the children. There is a growing need for children playgrounds which are known as lungs of the cities today.

This study was made to determine the present state and qualifications of children parks or playgrounds in the city center of Isparta for today and the future.

The study was carried out in the municipal area of Isparta. Information has been given about the definition, function, classification and standards of playgrounds. the adequacy of the playgrounds in Isparta according to the population of the city and the qualification of the present playgrounds have been investigated.

As a result of research conducted previously by the children's playground in the city stable dispersion it has been found to be inadequate and the falling amount of reinforcement elements per person .The playgrounds should be planned systematically considering all parts of the city and the neceassary precautions should be taken about their quality and quantity at present and fort the future.


       Inside living technology in the 21st century your developments In many areasour lives facilitated can be said. However, especially social life Areas such as these are not given due attention.  

In urban centers, especially among children's concrete piles, from their lives even a little will drive awaywill relieve to spaces And spatial organizations are needed.  

city of children to your life participation, gaming activities by realizing developedhealthy generations upbringing The importance of playgrounds for children is undeniable. Children's playgrounds, with buildings taking shape city environment, children's nature meetvarious elements and their physical and mental and physiological structure. developer are the areas of exercise. children's playgrounds to socializestarting child's house outsideIt is one of the first areas that he can feel belonged to and own.  

Playing in playgrounds increases the child's self-confidence, besides many physical abilities, language, communication building, higher brain functions and social abilities develops. The child's knowledge of the world around him and understandingbetween objects in the environment without causing significant risks. relationships and given the opportunity to study and learn about social roles develops. (Başöz and Cakmakci 2002).  

Adults to play games empty where they value their time bother. However, playing games is for the child. ray is himself. While a child is playing, his brain is constantly works, new Things learns and develops.  

According to the 11th article of the new Turkish Civil Code, the child in our country underage being age It is considered to be 18. Accordingly, 18 age everyone is a child. Playgrounds are also 0-18 age addressing the groupp. Therefore the game how much in the child's life It is important that (Başöz and Cakmakci 2002).  

With all these aspects, our country's cities green It is seen that the children's playgrounds within the field system are insufficient in terms of quantity and quality compared to the European Union countries. It is an important issue whether the existing playgrounds have a positive effect on children. suitable and sufficient in shape undistributed playgrounds, child's physical to the development mentally and spiritually, even if to the development cannot affect.  

Today's playgrounds are mostly the same, with commercial concerns, with many without thought become areas. Also, in these areas about what the child wants being investigated to the child's wishes opposite areas that cannot being created. However, playgrounds enable the child, who are aware of the responsibilities of the society in the future, physically, spiritually and mentally. its development optimal in shape completed as individuals in his upbringing and contributing to their education.  

with the subject made about researchToday, in many big cities in Turkey, children's play needs they can afford g that the number of fields is limitedshows. Build our futureturan our children's healthyspiritual and spiritual developmentChildren's vote of local governments for the solution of these problems that need to be urgently addressedconservation and development of n areasThey need to play a more active role in In this context, in the field of Landscape Architecture, this researchIt is desired that the climbs will guide the local administrations.


2.1. The Concept of Open and Green Space in the Landscape Architecture Discipline

2.1.1. Open and green space concept

Open spaces are one of the important basic elements of the urban fabric and are defined as openings and empty spaces outside the architectural structure and transportation areas. In other words, they are perceived as areas where there is no construction for any purpose and there is a potential opportunity for any recreational use (Öztan 1968).  

Urban open spaces are; It can be defined as circulation areas and outdoor areas whose floors are partially or completely covered with flooring material. Open and semi-open private sitting areas, balconies, living quarters, courtyards, front and back gardens, playgrounds, parks, etc., which increase the livability of indoor spaces by providing light, air, outdoor living opportunities and a beautiful appearance, constitute outdoor use areas. Pedestrian and vehicle circulation areas that establish transportation and communication relations between the buildings and various parts of the city are streets, avenues, boulevards, parking lots, squares. etc. uses can be defined as circulation areas. Green areas form part of the open areas. In general, green areas can be defined as the green elements that contribute to people spiritually and physically, and the green areas formed by these elements, together with the building elements (Anonymous 2002).  

According to the sociologist Keleş (1998), the open area is “the part of the city that is left outside the closed spaces on which people live and that is either left naturally or reserved for agriculture and non-residential recreation purposes”; and green areas are defined as “common use areas such as promenade and tree-lined roads, which are reserved for the people of the city and town to rest, wander and play, and which are arranged by the city administrators in order to prevent these places from being occupied by other uses”.

According to Gold (1980), open spaces are; It is the general name of natural or man-made lands that provide space for many uses with different characters, integrate or separate the use of land. In other words, open spaces are areas that provide opportunities and create a wide potential in areas such as resource use, multi-faceted protection, recreation, public health and safety, physical development control.   

Urban planner Samuel Zisman basically collects open spaces in three categories (Önder 1997).,

1- Utilized openings: Dam lakes, drainage and flood control, air access areas.
2- Green open spaces: Park and recreation areas, green belts, green roads, building environments, nature and landscape protection areas.  
3- Corridor openings: places of movement, transportation and passage  

The nature of open spaces creates relationships between intelligible elements such as structures, trees, roads, and landforms. In a very busy city, any space, even a parking lot, is a place of relaxation and breathing in the crowd of buildings. But this excitement is very short-lived. Because right after this feeling, the idea of planning the open space for a better use, tasteful decoration and meaning becomes dominant, and thus the main problem begins. The main motif of the open space organization emerges from the relationship between the circulation pattern and the different usage areas of the City. All this is limited by the topography and the character of the structure and other kinds of elements surrounding the opening.  

Open spaces should be useful, comfortable and beautiful. There should be both a flexible and a non-negotiable relationship with pedestrian, bicycle, and other types of usage areas of the horse traffic pattern. These should facilitate sitting, lounging, community gathering, organized games, free play, study of the elements of nature, getting to know people and cultural activities. (Akdogan 1972).   

Türel (1988)'According to this, urban and regional green areas are as follows:categorizes it. 

 1- The immediate surroundings of the residence; pocket parks; mini parks, playgrounds, 

2- neighborthong unit parks, 

3- City metropolitan parks,  

4- Special activity areas, 

5- Roadside parks, 

6- Yesprovincial tapes,  

7- Visual greenprovince areas, 

8- Botanical gardens, 

9- Urban roads, medians, pedestrian zones.  

Ingilto the landscape architect Önder (1997) Open spaces are divided into two groups. First; are the areas where architectural elements are dominant. this gruba şSmall recreational parks, small squares in the busy parts of the city, serve passive recreation such as sitting and watching the environment. The second group is open spaces.They are large areas that provide quiet rest and active recreation to people away from the crowded and noisy parts of the city.  

yesprovince area concept; vegetative elements (herbaceous and woody plants) of existing open spaces, icoated and/or combined as surface areasis implied. Accordingly, everyThe city area is an open area.   

BayrAccording to transfer (1973); forming the cityThe physical measures to be made regarding the social units in the city and the regional needs including the city.according to the classification, greenprovince areascan be grouped as    

– Kindergarten: Children's playgrounds, before school age Designed for the benefit of children are small areas. This type of gardenmostly concentrated in the citythe moment was localized in the middle or near the dwellingslyre work of young childrenhad to pass through the streetsGet here within a close walking distance, without having tothey are required. 

– Neighborhood Playgrounds: These areas are primarily 6-14 years oldOrganized for the needs of children betweenr. Also youth and adultkin's recreational activitiesclassified as i It has some facilities. A small portion is included for children before school age. In a central location in every neighborhood foundation for community activitiesIt is found as an important piece to tour. One being adjacent to primary schools in many placesu is a practical and economically ideal bit is a shape and school hours are outsideIt allows other social groups to benefit. With playground-park-school combinations like thisneighborhood recreation centerur.  

– Neighborhood Cluster Playground: One of the neighborhood clusters heach one forming a district of the city.Turan consists of several districts. this areafountains for teenagers and adultsIt has good recreational opportunities. In general, a children's playground is also included. Such large playgrounds are usually large enough to serve four neighborhoods. neighborhood cluster wide range of playgroundsthe one which...change of various schoolsutilized in terms of business activities. Therefore, the combination of secondary schools set up recreation centerturns.  

– Neighborhood Parks: This The areas are primarily an attractive view to the neighborhood settlement.and shrubs to provide a suitable place for passive recreation.Imagine it as a landscaped park with green and grass areas.reputationcusstype. Sometimes older children or grown-upsAlthough it has some facilities for grudgese, such parks are the main bdistrict or a crowded settlementat me point or kena refreshing empty in the center of tacts as a luke.  

– City Park: These areas provide the residents of the city with the noise and crowding of the traffic.escapism, one-on-one with naturein order to prepare the opportunity to enjoy a stay showerfamous. ThisThe most important purpose, together withity recreational fuseful in terms of activities, pleasant to create an environment.  

- Local Parks: On-site long walks, camping, picnic, nature study and winter Although it has areas suitable for activities such as sports, the main 

purpose, nature conservation and to have reserves. Most such municipal areas are located near the city limits or directly border the city.reminiscent. Thus, the green bird controlling the development of citiesacts as a battery.  

– Parkways: Parkways are essentially the uninterrupted extension of a parking area along the road. Such an arrangement allows for enjoyable traffic use. Most parkways connect a city center with one or more parking spaces, some link several large units of the parking system.a circular ring road businesshas a levy. Sometimes portions of a parkway are reserved for playgrounds, picnic centers, or other recreational uses.  

– Special Recreational Areas: Places that primarily serve a private activity, such as golf courses, camps, beaches, swimming pools, athletic fields and stadiums.  

– Other Recreation Uses: In the cityannex small courtyard squares and bazaarOther recreation areas such as squares, areas belonging to museums, zoological and botanical gardens, nurseries, surrounding temples, gardens belonging to neighborhood clusters, etc.arranged for hand use are the fields.  

2.1.2. Open and green space standards in cities

The open and green space standard is generally expressed as the m² amount of open and green areas per capita, that is, the division of all green areas on the city by the general population of the city. However, this statement is a quantitative approach. Open and green spaces are as important as the area they cover, their equipment, functionality and aesthetics. changeit is a feasible phenomenon. Because every city dweller agebecause their culture, occupation and economic situation will be different. green space requirements also differwill show (Table 1.). open and green physical and environmental characteristics of the city in determining the area standard. Social, cultural and economic factors (such as climate, topography and location) play an important role as well as intensity of use.   

open and green As a general rule in determining the field criteria, reachclear as time increases and green the size of the area in hectares should increase and its reinforcements should be it should get complicated It is called (Ergin 1989).  

Every country and even every City open for and green Although the main reasons for the need for space are the same, the degree of this need and its to meet land potential required for Financing opportunities and the awareness of the society on this issue differ. In addition to all this, each City It has a different natural, physical, social and cultural structure. Each of the city use of the surrounding land shape and its natural potential also show differences. This structure is open and greeneven if the areas are the same to cities applicable partner and constantIt is not possible to give standards based on principles.  

chart 1. Strange age Required areas and distances according to groups (Özhelvacı and Özer 1997)  





-For up to 10 mothers and 10 children     

-30 m


-2 m² per residence 30-60 m².

-Per student:

-3 m² garden -1 m² open-air classroom, 

-1 m² training garden -4 m² planted area (total 9m²)

Between -30-70 m -150 m


-The distance between such places is at most 350 m.


 -14 m2 per residence (in combination with greened areas)      

- 14 m2 per residence (together with green areas)

- Up to 350 m - Out of sight and up to 350 m


– Outside the city or in the immediate vicinity

2.2. Child and Play Concept

2.2.1. Game concept

Children and play are two elements that cannot be separated from each other. Play has an important role in the development of the child. Play is the most important occupation in which the child spends most of his time.  

Play, development of children's physical, mental and creativity capacities is combined with international rules and the understanding that play is one of the most important elements in the development process of the child.  

Play is the method of learning the subjects that no one else can teach the child, through their own experiences. They are actions that are done for fun, without thinking about the outcome of the game. The game is considered the opposite of for. Because there is a certain result at work.   

Play is an important activity for a healthy social, physical and mental child development. Play is a process that the child learns while doing and reconciles with the social and physical environment. It is important in what quality the child uses his time and energy while playing games. It is seen that the child who gets the opportunity of quality play is creative, has a flexible approach to problem solving, has better social relations and is physically healthier (Anonymous 2005).  

Physical-motor game consisting of games without rules such as climbing, jumping, running, and games with rules such as basketball and football, which provide opportunities for muscle development; cognitive-mental play involving activities using objects or the environment; There are three types of games: role and dramatic games, organized games, and social games that include speech, walking, and observation. “functional game” in which components of a skill are experienced and their muscles exercised; “construction game” in which something is built; directed or spontaneous "dramatic play"; “Games with rules”, which have to comply with pre-arranged rules, is a cognitive game classification.  

If two or more children are playing the same type of game at the same time and do not have much verbal or physical contact, this is parallel play. Other early childhood games are often parallel to learn how children participate in the activity; (like a sand game). As the child gets older, he plays alongside others to engage in group activity. Group play often involves sharing roles and play tools through verbal or physical interaction. The context provided by the game enables meeting with very important social skills such as sharing, acting together, taking turns and understanding the rules of the game (Tekkaya 2001).  

From the eyes of adults, play is an aimless pursuit that serves to entertain and distract the child. The person who has no job or wants to rest plays games. In other words, we see play as the opposite of work. Play is the main occupation for the child and it is his most important job.  

As the great thinker Montaigne stated centuries ago, “Children's play is not play, but their most serious occupation”. Observing children who have not reached school age for a short time is enough to reveal this fact. Children play non-stop throughout the day. They get so caught up in the game that they don't know they're hungry, and when called, they don't come right away. For him, the game is a task that needs to be completed (Yörükoğlu 2002). Although its importance has been known for a long time, the conscious use of the game in education is considered new. Especially the explanation of the meaning of the game is even more recent. S. Freud and the child psychiatrists who followed him showed the contribution of the game to personality development and revealed that it is a valuable tool in getting to know the child. This important development is that the most important method in reducing the child's mental dissonance is play. 

As the child plays, his senses sharpen, his talents flourish, his skill increases. Because the game is the child's most natural learning environment. It is an experiment room where they test what they hear and see, try and reinforce what they have learned. In short, the child playing is in his own little world. Play is the freedom of the child (Yörükoğlu 2002).  

Children imitate their parents through play. They show the behaviors of parents in their games, while playing with their toys (Yörükoğlu 2002).  

To define it in general, play is a part of real life, which is the basis of physical, cognitive, language, emotional and social development, which can be performed with or without rules, but in any case willingly and enjoyably. It can be defined as the most effective learning process for students (Yörükoğlu 2002).  

2.2.2. The effects of the game on the developmental areas of the child

Play, which is a life learning tool for children, has a great importance in terms of physical, psychomotor, emotional, social, mental and language development of the child. (Anonymous 2005).  

– The Effects of Play on the Child's Physical Development: Growth, the increase in the child's height and body weight that can be measured, and development; It can be defined as the maturation and differentiation of biological functions of a growing organism as a result of changes in the structure and biochemical composition of its tissues. The concept of development encompasses an orderly, harmonious and continuous progress. The child's constant repetition of certain movements during the game will naturally accelerate his muscle development. For example; The constant repetition of games such as cycling, climbing, and jumping rope accelerates and strengthens the child's muscle development. In addition, games that require physical power such as running, jumping, jumping, climbing and crawling ensure the regular functioning of the child's respiratory, circulatory, digestive and excretory systems. In this way, oxygen intake increases, blood circulation and nutrient transport to the tissues are accelerated. Such active games also provide an opportunity for the child to get to know and explore his/her environment.

The Effects of Play on the Child's Psycho-Motor Development: "Psycho-motor" development is the voluntary mobilization of the organism as a result of the development of the brain and spinal cord, along with physical growth and development. All of these movements that shape and affect the life of the child occur as a result of the acquisition of skills related to the motor development of the large muscles. The fact that children are constantly in motion with actions such as walking, running, jumping, climbing, sliding, descending, climbing, throwing, catching, jumping, jumping, dragging, and swinging supports and affects their gross motor development.  

The Effects of Play on the Child's Emotional Development: Psychoanalytic theorists such as Freud and Walder showed the concept of play as a way to alleviate the child's anxiety and defined play as getting rid of the pressure, tension and conflicts of reality, as well as repeating pleasurable activities and expressing prohibited motives. Through play, the child disturbs him in real life. can express situations or negative feelings that he cannot share with other people and reflect these events in his play symbolically.  

The Effects of Play on the Child's Social Development: Social development is the child's ability to develop sensitivity to social stimuli, especially to the pressures and obligations of group life, to get along with others in their group or culture, and to behave like them. In another sense, socialization is learning to obey the rules and values of the group and adopting this order of values. Therefore, play has important effects on the social development of the child. The effects of play on the child's social development can be summarized as follows;

– Child's Mental In its development Effects of the game: The game is the child's, 

psychomotor, social and emotional its development as well as mental its development also affects. Because the game gives the child the environment. researchrecognizing objects and solving problems opportunity provides. The child in this way greatness, ShapeMany concepts and concepts such as color, size, weight, volume, measurement, counting, time, space, distance, space. pairingmany mental skills such as classification, sequencing, analysis, synthesis and problem solving. transactions can learn too.  

– Child's Language In its development Effects of Play: Children's games many requires the use of language and children's language their development is supportive. During the game, the child is able to express himself and the other has to understand. Especially the language of symbolic games. in development its role is huge.  

In short, child through play (Anonymous 2005);  

 to think and your own per learns to make decisions

 Taking responsibility, partnership to do and to share learns, 

 Imagination, skills and creativity develops,

 Learns to focus attention and organize skills, Learns to know himself, 

 One of the most powerful and natural urges, the urge to aggression. unloadingfinds the opportunity, 

 Strange experimenting with social roles, outward finds the opportunity to hit and Anotherwith objects or people their relationship examines, 

 Muscle its development accelerates and strengthens,

 Surroundings researchprovides the opportunity to recognize objects and solve problems,

 Learns to express himself, understand what is expressed verbally, gain new words, 

 Child collective life learns the necessary rules.

2.2.3. game phases

children's to your age And development game stages that differ according to the level of searching by examined and different in shapes explained. This from researchers Parten (1932), play boy in the development while examining the social aspect; Piaget (1962) mental development direction has examined.  

– In Parten's Classification of Social Play, play is primitive social from behaviorcollaborator social to behaviors right one development shows (Alqudah 2003).   

parten game 5 in phase hand has received: (Parten 1932);  

1- Single Per Game: This era at the beginning The child first starts to deal with his own limbs and when he is a few months old, he starts to deal with the stimulants around him. starts. In this period, the colors, sounds and movements of the objects play the child's play. constitutes. Then other with people social interaction alone, with children's toys per is playing. In children's group activities to your friends does not participate, is not affected by the games of the children around him and acts independently. The most distinctive feature of this period is that there is nothing around the child. from the devil is to continue playing without being affected. But forward ages, for example; 4-5 years old kids are sometimes alone per game return They can do it alone with their toys for a long time without getting bored. on their heads they can play. 

2- Game Tracing: During this period, the child does not interact with other children. relationshipwithout installing, just watching their games or participating in the game behaviours You can ask questions about This game phase only per game from the stage It can be distinguished by the child's interest in the play of others. 

3- Parallel Play: In this period, children play in the same environment, use the same toys, but do not play together and continue to play independently of each other. In parallel play, children's social interactions wanting a toy, though very little, your thoughts in cases like saying 

with each other a little interact they can enter. This is game circuit 2 years oldstarts and 3-4 to your age it may take as long. 

4- Play Together: Children group together Shaped and each other interactionthey are in They can benefit from each other's ideas, game materials buyingexchange they can. Each of the children continues their own game, but they do not play the same game.  

5- Cooperative Game: to cooperation In this game based on is to succeed and the game with this purpose in mind planned. During this period, there is no real social interaction among children. interaction and children have the purpose of the game. to reach about to they are organized. In addition, game materials are also used for this purpose. is shared.  

– According to Piaget (1962), in the classification of play, children's play, mental to development 3 in parallel in phase is explained.  

– with practice Game (Functional Play- Sensory / Sensomotor period): 0- 2 ageDuring this period, children learn and recognize their bodies and their environment. they are in the phase. During this period, Piaget functional The game, which he defines as a game, is the child's learning and repetition of his body, objects and their functions and turning it into a game. During this period, the child learns to manage the objects around him and his body. Then he plays games by repeating these movements. spoon The child who hears the sound when it hits something, to hear this sound again spoon various to the goods can hit and make sound games by repeating the sounds he makes.  

– Symbolic Game (Imitation symbolic game): 2- 12 ages In this period, which includes between lived events, kiwisimitating objects and animals starts. The child can pretend to drink water from a container or pretend to be a horse without the actual model in the game. While imitating these events, his events understandingperception differentiatesdevelops and can be completed. Towards the end of this period, the child's play becomes more realistic and to the division of labor more based. 7-8 from their age Afterwards, the fact that the game is played in accordance with the facts causes its rules and objectives to be determined in detail beforehand. 

  – Game with Rules: According to Piaget, this game shape 12 from your age then concrete transactions from the stage appears later. The child is now more logical, more social in the game and the facts are more clear in his mind. has been finalized. Also egocentrism and fantasy (imagination-image) games decreased and the game has certain rules connected. In this period usually, certain and sometimes complicated Games with rules are played. For example; Skill games such as hide-and-seek, hopscotch or organized sports games and intelligence games such as chess and checkers are among the most popular games of this period. Children's games of this period require skill, intelligence and, above all, knowledge of rules. These games are also called "structural games" and children who do not know or do not comply with the basic rules of the game are either punished or not allowed to play again.

2.3. Playgrounds in Urban Green Space  

Green areas should be ordered in a gradual and complementary manner according to their functions and sizes. According to the functions of green areas in cities; can be divided into categories such as children's playgrounds, parks, sports fields, recreation areas.  

Green areas, which provide social, environmental, economic, health and recreation benefits to urban people, are of great importance in urban planning. Green areas, unlike the houses with gardens, are planned as special useful areas and are reserved for the development of various joint activities that are the extension of the settlement. Playgrounds, which are part of the green areas in the city, should be planned in such a way that they are easily accessible and away from negative effects such as dust, noise and odor (Acar and Sarı 2004).

Play ground 

The environment and the playground have an effect on the game potential. The child should try various areas in order to create space awareness and to stimulate perception and motor development. In order for the child to have a sense of space, he must learn various concepts such as above-under, inside-outside, open-closed, right-left, near-far. The repetition of shapes, textures, colors, designs and sounds is important for enabling children to learn. In reality, every field and every environment has a potential for education. A playground teaches the child shape, size, number, relationship between parts, etc. It should help to develop concepts such as (Alqudah 2003).  

The playground is a spatial educational environment designed to support the child's activities essential for social, emotional, cognitive and physical development and education. The playground should allow for different activities, different types of play such as structured play, creative play, play with natural elements, water and sand play, quiet play, shared open-space play. A well-designed, well-managed game environment It provides children with development opportunities such as the development of motor skills, social development, learning, decision making, fantasy play, playing games for fun. 

(Alqudah 2003).

There are four main types of playgrounds (Alqudah 2003):  

– Traditional (Classical or conventional) playgrounds: Based on standard game equipment. The reinforcement is usually used alone and is intended for major muscle activity and motor development. The most commonly used equipment in traditional playgrounds is the swing. In these areas, % 77.9 of child behaviors are functional and % 2 are dramatic. Connected playgrounds are formed by combining classical game tools. The game tool has become a structure due to its dimensions. Traditional type playgrounds; Slides, swings, seesaws are places where children can find their identities but are not sufficient for social and conceptual development (Arnold 1996).  

– Contemporary (Sculpture) playgrounds: These are one-off designs designed by an Architect or Landscape Architect. They are aesthetic. Sculptural playgrounds are often static; Nothing moves in it except children. They can have features such as water, fountain, hill, slope, tunnel (Alqudah 2003).  

Contemporary type playgrounds; It connects or connects parts of continuity and differently shaped places, such as pavements or multifunctional structures (Arnold 1996).  

– Adventure playgrounds: Adventure parks provide children with equipment to create their own playgrounds. Nothing is fixed or static. Hand tools, unused old tires, discarded timber, chests, soil, water, bricks, paper, paint, nails, hammers, shovels, ropes, etc. consists of materials (Alqudah 2003).  

The venue has a leader who gives advice and takes part in the children's play; this person is usually a voluntary adult. Children are expected to use the elements in the space creatively and reshape their environment by using them. 

Among the playgrounds, they are the adventure playgrounds that meet the play needs of the children the most. Although adventure playgrounds are the least visually attractive and aesthetically pleasing playground type, it can be said that it is the playground where children stay the longest..   

– Creative playgrounds: This type of playground includes modular “loose” sections where children can create their own environment. Modular parts to children, provides the opportunity to create their own playgrounds without the need for tools. It is diversified in design and equipment. There are generally malleable materials such as sand. Complex units can be found for a wheeled vehicle area, a water and sand area, climbing, swinging and fantasy play. Creative play provides the child with the opportunity to gain a flexible approach to problem solving; but it is difficult for the designer to provide this game. Flexible elements that can be moved or changed enable more creative play. Traditional play equipment appears to reduce creative play (Alqudah 2003).  

Advantageous creative type playgrounds; free, old trees, heavy walks and other materials. It allows children to create their thoughts, provides flexibility, and provides opportunities for their conceptual, social and physical development (Arnold 1996).  

One of the problems brought about by urbanization is the deterioration of the urban-nature balance and the increasing environmental problems in parallel with the intense use and gradual decrease of urban open and green spaces. The benefits of urban green spaces are great, from meeting the physical and spiritual needs of the citizens, protecting natural riches, especially biological diversity, developing tourism, creating buffer zones between residential areas and commercial and industrial areas, facilitating pedestrian and vehicle circulation. Green areas improve the urban environment with many functions. While shaping the character of the city and neighboring areas, it reduces the temperature effect, surface water flow, accelerates the formation of wildlife in the city and most importantly provides positive effects on human life (Acar and Sarı 2004).   

When choosing a place for children's playgrounds and playgrounds, it is necessary to pay attention to the following:: (Gökok et al. 1990; Alqudah 2003).   

 Age distribution of the population in the area to be planned, 

 Socio-economic characteristics of the population, 

 The amount of school playgrounds,

 To what extent the school playgrounds are open to the public other than students, 

 Local tendencies and habits,

 Climate characteristics, 

 The size of the city and the proximity of the city to nature - physical and psychological, 

 Health characteristics of the population, 

 Housing and population densities in the city, 

 Public transportation network.  

2.3.1. children's gardens

These are playgrounds for children's preschool period. 0-3 and 3-6 ageswill serve the children between in shape they are planned. Such playgrounds should be located near residential areas, taking into account the necessity of being under the supervision of the child's mother. creation is necessary. Kindergartens are located in almost every neighborhood and in a certain accessibility within the distance placementmust. The structure and population density of the residential area, the size of the playgrounds and transport is the most important factor determining the distance (Banal et al. 1993). These are the play requirements of children to meet It is intended for use and covers an area of 250 m² or 500-1000 m² depending on the need and children per an area of at least 6.5 m² should be planned (Alqudah 2003). pre-school choby examining nature,they can acquire many skills and have experience in this field.   

2.3.2. children's playgrounds  

Children's playgrounds are for children in older age groups. They are places that are mainly organized for the age groups of 6-12, 12-14, 14-18 and allow physical movements and sportive activities depending on the rules. They are open spaces that meet the active recreation needs of children, make use of their free time and contribute to their spiritual, physical and mental development, as well as encouraging children to play and order (Cihangiroğlu 1994).  

“Playgrounds” are open spaces that provide active recreation. Its dimensions are determined according to the structure of the neighborhood or neighborhood associations, population density and population projections, and economic conditions. They are open spaces with more essential functions for neighborhoods or associations. This type of playgrounds require larger areas than playgrounds. The distance of these areas to the houses should be determined well considering that the houses should not be disturbed by the noise that will occur, and that the transportation of children should not be too difficult. Even they can also be used for collective activities such as some holidays, games, etc. where the neighborhood will come together (Başal et al. 1993).  

In the design of the children's playground, it should be considered that the game plays a role in the mental development of the child by revealing the educational and creative power, as well as being a means of listening and entertainment for the child. The importance and necessity of children's playgrounds  

Playgrounds provide children with the opportunity to play and become a source of joy and health. In addition, it takes the child from the streets, which are dangerous environments, and in a way protects them from traffic accidents.  

Today, especially in developed countries, it has been understood that children cannot develop by jostling in small playgrounds, and it has become an important requirement to organize playgrounds where children are given as much importance as adults in almost all cities, where they can play easily and get together like adults. (Bektas 2003).  Children's playgrounds are necessary in order to create a safe and peaceful environment for children in cities that are changing day by day, in places with heavy traffic, which have become concrete piles, and where they lack green areas, and in order for them to have their own places where they can play. And the child can develop his creativity in these areas. by developingwith people communication by establishing helping each other They learn to take part in society and prepare themselves for life. In short, with the child meeting And its development Thanks to these places, it continues more comfortably.. (Bektas 2003).  

Play has an undeniably important effect on the child. researchas a result of has been put. In the Maltese Declaration on the Rights of the Child to Play, announced in 1977 on the occasion of the World Year of the Child, play is essential for every child, in addition to nutrition, health, shelter and education. development for the potential vital that it matters highlighted.  


Many studies with children's playgroundsthere is an example. This thesisalso The child in the municipality of Isparta city playgrounds have been prepared taking into account related studies.. collected lots of literatureadditional studiesofhas been utilized. This thesisalso DPrevious study surveys were used.

Examples of Studies and Researches on Children's Playgrounds in Turkey  

Opens and Sarı (2004), in their research, evaluated the children's games of the city of Trabzon in terms of landscape planning and tried to develop analyzes.  

Akdogan (1972)has also conducted a research on the competences and planning principles of children's playgrounds, school gardens and sports fields in five big cities.   

Aksoy (2001), examined and researched the green space status of the city of Istanbul.  

 Alşudah (2003) researches also investigated the role of playgrounds in child development.  

Altınçekiç and Sarı (2005)The city of Bartın evaluated children's games in terms of quality and quantity and tried to develop analyzes.  

Barbour (1999) also investigated the effect of playground design on playgrounds for children with varying physical skill levels.  

Bektaş (2003) conducted research on primary school children and the effects of children's playgrounds in the city of Erzurum.   

Bulut and Yılmaz (2003) investigated the location of children's playgrounds in urban spaces in the city of Erzurum. 

Düger (2001) researched and analyzed the principles of environmental design for 0-6 age group children in Ankara in the thesis study.  

Fjortoft and Sageie (2000), researching the importance of the natural environment in children's playgrounds in their research, determined the importance of vegetation and children's playgrounds, revealing that there is a strong duality between landscape structure and play tools.   

Gültekin and Altınkaya (1983) investigated the adequacy of children's playgrounds in Adana, İskenderun and Mersin.   

Gür (2002) examined the relationship between child and space.  

Keltik and Special 2000, Çanakkale city children's playgrounds have been analyzed within the framework of landscape planning criteria and suggestions have been developed.  

Önder and Memlük (1997), in their research, examined the children's playgrounds in Konya city Selçuklu district in terms of quantity and quality, it was determined that they were structurally inadequate and they developed suggestions.  

Özgen and Aytug (1991) analyzed the equipment in 4 different playgrounds in Istanbul and investigated the user tendencies in the use of rootstocks and planting, the sufficiency of which was determined.  

Özgen (1997), in his research, determined the non-standard physical preparations of the equipment and tools in the gardens of educational institutions in Istanbul, summaries about the subject were made to parents and teachers, and suggestions were developed.  

Savaş (1994), in his thesis studies, examined the elements of the children's playgrounds in the province of Izmir, it was understood that the playgrounds were insufficient, and developed adequacy analyzes. 

Sürmen (1998), in the research conducted, analyzed the relationship between child psychology in Zonguldak province and the principles of arrangement of children's playgrounds.  

Tekkaya (2001) examined designed children's rights.   

Uz and Çabuk (2006) analyzed the adequacy of urban green spaces for children in Eskişehir and used geographic information systems publications in their analyses.  

Yıldızı (1979), in his thesis study, examined the relationship between urban texture and green texture in Istanbul.sThe green areas have been evaluated on the basis of quality and quantity, and features have been developed for the green area system.   

Yılmaz Bulut (2002), in his research, focuses on the planning and design principles of children's playgrounds in two urban spaces in the city of Erzurum.investigated in terms of Yucel(2005) analyzed the design of children's playgrounds in Istanbul and developed suggestions in their research.    

ispExample of a Study in the City of Arta

The study conducted by Halil Özgüner and Candan Şahin in the city of Isparta between April and September 2006; held in 39 different children's playgrounds in the city. In order to obtain richer and more detailed information in their studies, a survey was conducted with a total of 71 children, 38 boys and 33 girls. 

The sizes of the children's playgrounds within the scope of the research vary between 100 and 3800 square meters. ''The majority of children's playgrounds (28 units) do not have protection (fence) elements. In children's playgrounds, where mostly wooden seating elements are located, pool and other water elements were encountered in 10 areas, while shadow elements were found in only 5 areas. Most of the areas (24) have lighting elements. However, it was determined that almost half of the sample areas (19) were neglected. Cat, dog, chicken and bird species are among the animals found in children's playgrounds.

Halil Özgüner and Candan Şahin also examined children's playgrounds in terms of plant design in their study. From coniferous species to red pine, larch, cedar and cypress species in children's playgrounds; Among the leafy species, it was determined that willow, plane tree, maple, oak, acacia and walnut species were included. It was found that there were no coniferous and leafy tree species in the 10 children's playgrounds they examined, shrub and shrub species in 23, and herbaceous plant species in 26.. 22


This work with To reveal the current situation of children's playgrounds in our country and the behavior of children towards such areas in the example of the city of Isparta and to It aimed to make suggestions about what should be done in this regard. As a result of this study, which was carried out using on-site observation and face-to-face survey methods in 39 different children's playgrounds in the city of Isparta, it was determined that the existing playgrounds were insufficient to support the physical, psychological, mental and social development of children. In order to solve the problem, first of all, it is important to make the necessary changes in the relevant laws and regulations regarding the allocation of areas suitable for the ages and action scales of children in different age groups in cities, as emphasized in previous studies (Yılmaz and Bulut, 2003; Bal, 2005). Later, in the landscape design works to be carried out in such areas, it is necessary to diversify the playgrounds that are flat especially in terms of topography, to provide structural and natural diversity in different playgrounds, to design natural spaces that contain different habitat types within the framework of ecological principles, and to prepare a flexible and changeable environment for children from time to time. . The fact that climbing tools, small playhouses, various animals and zoos are among the things that children want to have in playgrounds also reveals the need for such spaces. In this context, it may be beneficial to reflect the natural style landscape design and application understanding (Özgüner, 2003) to children's playgrounds. In addition, an exemplary project study in the city of Isparta as a result of the collaboration of city and regional planning and landscape architecture disciplines, which was built on the basis of the "play zone" concept developed by Ergin (1982) at the neighborhood scale and offering uninterrupted play opportunities (Özgüner et al., 2007). ), gives clues about what can be done in children's playgrounds in our country. Determining children's play tendencies and expectations from playgrounds and considering them in the design of playgrounds is a reality that is ignored in our country, and there are limited studies on this subject (Acar, 2003; Bektaş, 2004). The dissemination of more comprehensive survey studies among different age groups in different cities in this regard is another issue that should be considered in terms of guiding the responsible and authorities about what kind of playground children want.  


The literature on this subject has been searched.


Games played in playgrounds support children's creativity and independence. These areas allow various activities such as running, jumping, jumping, throwing, swinging, climbing, digging, riding, sliding, and catching, and concepts and skills arising from movement are acquired. The games played in these areas cause children to play together and therefore to find solutions to the problems that may arise in their socialization. playgrounds; It ensures that children's sense of aggression is channeled in a positive way, discharges excess energy accumulation in the child, supports positive self-development, discover his abilities, know his body, control his power, gain distance perception and direction sensitivity with the device. (Sevinç, 2004). Adventure and creative playgrounds in cities that can be used by everyone who can support children's games physically, socially and cognitively and allow them to use their creativity.are needed.   While playing fields, zsure coverings, planting Attention should be paid to the reliability of the playground equipment used and the playground should be guided by planning and design principles.should be carried out accordingly. Today, playgrounds have become areas that are mostly identical to each other, built for commercial concerns, without much thought. In addition, in these areas, areas that do not respond to the child's wishes are created without researching what the child wants. However, playgrounds should be areas that contribute to the development and education of the child as individuals who are aware of the responsibilities of the society in the future and who have completed their physical, spiritual and mental development in the most appropriate way (Bal, 2005). Playgrounds are also included in architectural subjects. Therefore, when planning playgrounds, it is necessary to get opinions from architects, landscape architects and educators.  

While approaching the inner world of children, spaces to be designed without limiting their imagination without harming themof development of many childrenat the and it will have an impact on their outlook on life. Children are the future necessary for them to have fun in their own spaces without feeling restricted by their age.work needs to be done.


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